懸浮物

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懸浮物(suspended solids )指懸浮在水中的固體物質,包括不溶於水中的無機物、有機物及泥砂、黏土、生物等。水中懸浮物含量是衡量水污染程度的指標之一。懸浮物是造成水渾濁的主要原因。水體中的有機懸浮物沉積后易厭氧發酵,使水質惡化。中國污水綜合排放標準分3級,規定了污水和廢水中懸浮物的最高允許排放濃度,中國地下水質量標準生活飲用水衛生標準對水中懸浮物以渾濁度為指標作了規定。

目 錄1化學解釋

2工具書解釋

3學術解釋

4懸浮物的測定

4.1 主題內容和適用範圍

4.2 定義

4.3 試劑

4.4 儀器

4.5 採樣及樣品貯存

4.6 步驟

4.7 結果的表示

5英文版

1化學解釋水中的懸浮物質是顆粒直徑約在10-0.1um之間的微粒。肉眼可見。這些微粒主要是由泥沙、粘土、原生動物、藻類細菌病毒、以及高分子有機物等組成,常常懸浮在水流之中,水產生的渾濁現象,也都是由此類物質所造成。

2工具書解釋能在海水中懸浮相當長時間的固體顆粒。有時也稱為懸浮固體或懸浮膠體。它分有機和無機兩大部分。有機部分大多數是碎屑顆粒,它們是由碳水化合物(見碳水化合物)、蛋白質(見蛋白質)、類脂物(見類脂物)等所組成。無機部分包括陸源礦物碎屑(例如石英、長石、碳酸鹽和粘土)、水生礦物(例如沉澱的海綠石和鈣十字石等硅酸鹽類、碳。

3學術解釋1、此懸浮物定義是個相對概念.從理論上講如果水體透明度較高懸浮物的含量不會高而在含鹽廢水懸浮物的實際監測分析中由於分析方法不完善有時懸浮物會出現較高含量

2、懸浮物(SS):懸浮物是指水中無機的和有機的顆粒物,實際上也包括可沉降的固體顆粒物.懸浮物常常成為微生物隱蔽的載體

3、懸浮物是指不能通過濾器的固體物.用中(2)將稱至恆重的濾紙放入布氏漏斗中,用速定量濾紙過濾水樣,經103~105C烘乾恆重蒸餾水沖洗濾紙,以除去可溶性物質,並用攪拌后得到總不可濾殘渣(懸浮物)含量

4、懸浮物是指不溶於水的砂、粘土微粒和動植物有機體殘骸等等.水中含有雜質對鍋爐保養和蒸汽的蒸發十分有害的易結生水垢使金屬腐蝕和過燒引起泡沫及汽水井騰

5、懸浮物是指土壤浸提液中所含的粘土礦物、粉砂、腐殖質和鐵鋁水合氧化物等.有機物、無機物在懸浮物水相界面進行著一系列的遷移轉化過程,如吸附解吸作用、沉澱溶解作用等

6、懸浮物是指濾剩于濾器並在103~105℃烘至恆重的固體物.地面水中存在的懸浮物使水體渾濁,降低透明度,影響水生生物的呼吸代謝,甚至造成河道阻塞.因此,在水和污水處理中,測定懸浮物具有特定意義

7、0.45μm孔徑的濾膜能阻留水中的懸浮物和大部分細菌所以通常把通過0.45μm孔徑過濾器的定義為「溶解的」和「可溶的」而被阻留的部分則稱為懸浮物

8、H1501525ZP天然水中的雜質,按其顆粒大小的不同可分成三類:顆粒最大的稱為懸浮物.其次是膠體.最小的是離子和分子,即溶解物質.1.懸浮物懸浮物的顆粒較大,在水中不穩定,容易除去水發生渾濁現象,主要是由此類物質所造成的

9、「總不可濾殘渣」指截留在濾紙上的全部殘渣,即稱為懸浮物.在環境監測分析過程中,這種方法看似簡單,但操作步驟煩瑣而且要保證測定準確並不容易掌握

10、水中雜質按其顆粒大小可分為三類:顆粒最大的稱為懸浮物.其次稱為膠體物.最小的是分子和離子稱為溶解物.上述雜質如未經處理或處理不妥而XX鍋爐則會對鍋爐的安全經濟運行帶來各種危害 攜帶型懸浮物測定儀

4懸浮物的測定○(Determination of the weight of suspended solids water quality law)●

主題內容和適用範圍本標準規定了水中懸浮物的測定。

本標準適用於地面水、地下水,也適用於生活污水和工業廢水中懸浮物測定。

定義水質中的懸浮物是指水樣通過孔徑為0.45μm的濾膜,截留在濾膜上並於103~105℃烘乾至恆重的物質。

試劑蒸餾水或同等純度的水。

儀器4.1 常用實驗室儀器和以下儀器。

4.2 全玻璃微孔濾膜過濾器。

4.3 GN-CA濾膜、孔徑0.45μm、直徑60mm。

4.4 吸濾瓶、真空泵

4.5 無齒扁咀鑷子

採樣及樣品貯存5.1 採樣

所用聚乙烯瓶或硬質玻璃瓶要用洗滌劑洗凈。再依次用自來水和蒸餾水沖洗乾淨。在採樣之前,再用即將採集的水樣清洗三次。然後,採集具有代表性的水樣500~1 000mL,蓋嚴瓶塞。

注:漂浮或浸沒的不均勻固體物質不屬於懸浮物質,應從水樣中除去。

5.2 樣品貯存

採集的水樣應儘快分析測定。如需放置,應貯存在4℃冷藏箱中,但最長不得超過七天。

注:不能加入任何保護劑,以防破壞物質在固、液間的分配平衡。

步驟6.1 濾膜準備

用扁咀無齒鑷子夾取微孔濾膜放於事先恆重的稱量瓶里,移入烘箱中於103~105℃烘乾半小時后取出置乾燥器內冷卻至室溫,稱其重量。反覆烘乾、冷卻、稱量,直至兩次稱量的重量差≤0.2mg。將恆重的微孔濾膜正確的放在濾膜過濾器(4.1)的濾膜托盤上,加蓋配套的漏斗,並用夾子固定好。以蒸餾水濕潤濾膜,並不斷吸濾。

6.2 測定

量取充分混合均勻的試樣100mL抽吸過濾。使水分全部通過濾膜。再以每次10mL蒸餾水連續洗滌三次,繼續吸濾以除去痕量水分。停止吸濾后,仔細取出載有懸浮物的濾膜放在原恆重的稱量瓶里,移入烘箱中於103~105℃下烘乾一小時后移入乾燥器中,使冷卻到室溫,稱其重量。反覆烘乾、冷卻、稱量,直至兩次稱量的重量差≤0.4mg為止。

注:濾膜上截留過多的懸浮物可能夾帶過多的水份,除延長乾燥時間外,還可能造成過濾困難,遇此情況,可酌情少取試樣。濾膜上懸浮物過少,則會XX稱量誤差,影響測定精度,必要時,可XX試樣體積。一般以5~100mg懸浮物量做為量取試樣體積的實用範圍。

結果的表示懸浮物含量C(mg/L)按下式計算:

式中:C——水中懸浮物濃度,mg/L;

A——懸浮物+濾膜+稱量瓶重量,g;

B——濾膜+稱量瓶重量,g;

V——試樣體積,mL。

附加說明:

本標準由國家環保局標準處技術提出。

本標準由煙台市環境監測中心站負責起草。

本標準主要起草人李長海、王文法。

本標準委託中國環境監測總站負責解釋。

5英文版1. Applicable scope

It is used to test the SS in Water

It can be used for testing the SS in the surface or underground water, also can be used to test domestic water and industrial waste water.

2 Definition

The suspended substance is the stuff which is left on the filter film after being filtered with the hole diameter of um0.45 and has been dried in 103 to 105℃ condition to standing weight.

3 Reagent

Distilled water or the water with same purity

4 Apparatus

4.1 Normal lab apparatus plus below ones

4.2 Glass type micro film filter

4.3 GN-CA filter film, hole diameter 0.45um, Diameter 60mm.

4.4 Suction bottle, vacuum pump

4.5 Flat type tweezer

5 Sampling and sample storage

5.1 Sampling

The polyethylene bottle or hard glass bottle should be cleaned with detergent and then washed by tap water and distilled water respectively. Before sampling, it should be cleaned with the sample water 3 times. Then representative water sample should be taken at the volume of 500 to 1000ml, cover the cap tightly.

Note: The non-consistent solid material floating or submerged can not be regarded as SS, which should be removed from the water sample.

5.2 Sample storage

The water sample should be analyzed ASAP. If it needs to be stored for some time, it should be stored in the refrigerator at 4 ℃. But the duration can not be longer than 7 days.

Note: It is not allowed to add any protection agent to avoid the damage on the balance of solid and liquid phase.

6. Procedure

6.1 Filtering film preparation

Firstly, take the microporous film and put it on the standing weight bottle. Then it will be dried in the oven for half an hour at the temperature of 103 to 105℃. After that, it will be moved out to cool in the dryer until its temperature drops to room temperature. It should be dried, cooled and weighted repeatedly until the weight difference between two subsequent weighing is less than 0.2mg. Then the microporous film at constant weight should be correctly put on the film support tray and matching hopper should be equipped. Then it should be fastened with clamp. Wet the film with the distilled water and filtration and suction should be continuous.

6.2 Test

It is to suck 100ml of homogeneously mixed sample for filtering to get the water running through the microporous film. Next , wash it 3 times consecutively with 10ml of distilled water each time. Continue suction and filtration until getting the residual water away. After stopping filtering, put the film with SS left on top in the weighing bottle and then put them in the oven with the temperature of 103 to 105℃ for 1 hr. Then take it to the dryer to cool down to room temperature. Following step is to weigh it. The drying, cooling, and weighing should be repeated until the weight difference of two consecutive weightings is less than 0.4mg.

Note: Excessive SS on the top of microporous film may contain surplus moisture, which will increase the difficulty of filtering besides longer drying time. In that case, we can reduce the sampling volume slightly. On another hand, less SS on the film will also raise the weighing error and affect the measurement precision. thus, sampling volume should be increased correspondingly. Normally the sampling is done in the sample ranging from 5 to 100mg of SS.

7 Result calculation:

SS content:

In which, C: SS consistency

g;A—Weight of SS+ film+ weighing bottle

B: Weight of film+ weighing bottle

V: Sample volume

Note:

This standard is provided by National environmental protection bureau.

It is drafted by Yantai Environmental Monitoring Center.

It is mainly drafted by Mr Li Changhai and Wang Wenfa.

China Environmental Monitoring Center is responsible for the explanation for this standard.

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水中懸浮物測定方法探討-能源環境保護-2011年 第1期 (25)

重量法測定懸浮物應注意的幾個問題-江西冶金-2011年 第1期 (31)

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懸浮物

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參考資料

1化學解釋2工具書解釋3學術解釋4懸浮物的測定4.1主題內容和適用範圍4.2定義4.3試劑4.4儀器4.5採樣及樣品貯存4.6步驟4.7結果的表示5英文版

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1化學解釋水中的懸浮物質是顆粒直徑約在10-0.1um之間的微粒。肉眼可見。這些微粒主要是由泥沙、粘土、原生動物、藻類、細菌、病毒、以及高分子有機物等組成,常常懸浮在水流之中,水產生的渾濁現象,也都是由此類物質所造成。

2工具書解釋能在海水中懸浮相當長時間的固體顆粒。有時也稱為懸浮固體或懸浮膠體。它分有機和無機兩大部分。有機部分大多數是碎屑顆粒,它們是由碳水化合物(見碳水化合物)、蛋白質(見蛋白質)、類脂物(見類脂物)等所組成。無機部分包括陸源礦物碎屑(例如石英、長石、碳酸鹽和粘土)、水生礦物(例如沉澱的海綠石和鈣十字石等硅酸鹽類、碳。

3學術解釋1、此懸浮物定義是個相對概念.從理論上講如果水體透明度較高懸浮物的含量不會高而在含鹽廢水懸浮物的實際監測分析中由於分析方法不完善有時懸浮物會出現較高含量

2、懸浮物(SS):懸浮物是指水中無機的和有機的顆粒物,實際上也包括可沉降的固體顆粒物.懸浮物常常成為微生物隱蔽的載體

3、懸浮物是指不能通過濾器的固體物.用中(2)將稱至恆重的濾紙放入布氏漏斗中,用速定量濾紙過濾水樣,經103~105C烘乾恆重蒸餾水沖洗濾紙,以除去可溶性物質,並用攪拌后得到總不可濾殘渣(懸浮物)含量

4、懸浮物是指不溶於水的砂、粘土微粒和動植物有機體殘骸等等.水中含有雜質對鍋爐保養和蒸汽的蒸發十分有害的易結生水垢使金屬腐蝕和過燒引起泡沫及汽水井騰

5、懸浮物是指土壤浸提液中所含的粘土礦物、粉砂、腐殖質和鐵鋁水合氧化物等.有機物、無機物在懸浮物水相界面進行著一系列的遷移轉化過程,如吸附解吸作用、沉澱溶解作用等

6、懸浮物是指濾剩于濾器並在103~105℃烘至恆重的固體物.地面水中存在的懸浮物使水體渾濁,降低透明度,影響水生生物的呼吸和代謝,甚至造成河道阻塞.因此,在水和污水處理中,測定懸浮物具有特定意義

7、0.45μm孔徑的濾膜能阻留水中的懸浮物和大部分細菌所以通常把通過0.45μm孔徑過濾器的定義為「溶解的」和「可溶的」而被阻留的部分則稱為懸浮物

8、H1501525ZP天然水中的雜質,按其顆粒大小的不同可分成三類:顆粒最大的稱為懸浮物.其次是膠體.最小的是離子和分子,即溶解物質.1.懸浮物懸浮物的顆粒較大,在水中不穩定,容易除去水發生渾濁現象,主要是由此類物質所造成的

9、「總不可濾殘渣」指截留在濾紙上的全部殘渣,即稱為懸浮物.在環境監測分析過程中,這種方法看似簡單,但操作步驟煩瑣而且要保證測定準確並不容易掌握

10、水中雜質按其顆粒大小可分為三類:顆粒最大的稱為懸浮物.其次稱為膠體物.最小的是分子和離子稱為溶解物.上述雜質如未經處理或處理不妥而XX鍋爐則會對鍋爐的安全經濟運行帶來各種危害 攜帶型懸浮物測定儀

4懸浮物的測定○(Determination of the weight of suspended solids water quality law)●

主題內容和適用範圍本標準規定了水中懸浮物的測定。

本標準適用於地面水、地下水,也適用於生活污水和工業廢水中懸浮物測定。

定義水質中的懸浮物是指水樣通過孔徑為0.45μm的濾膜,截留在濾膜上並於103~105℃烘乾至恆重的物質。

試劑蒸餾水或同等純度的水。

儀器4.1 常用實驗室儀器和以下儀器。

4.2 全玻璃微孔濾膜過濾器。

4.3 GN-CA濾膜、孔徑0.45μm、直徑60mm。

4.4 吸濾瓶、真空泵

4.5 無齒扁咀鑷子。

採樣及樣品貯存5.1 採樣

所用聚乙烯瓶或硬質玻璃瓶要用洗滌劑洗凈。再依次用自來水和蒸餾水沖洗乾淨。在採樣之前,再用即將採集的水樣清洗三次。然後,採集具有代表性的水樣500~1 000mL,蓋嚴瓶塞。

注:漂浮或浸沒的不均勻固體物質不屬於懸浮物質,應從水樣中除去。

5.2 樣品貯存

採集的水樣應儘快分析測定。如需放置,應貯存在4℃冷藏箱中,但最長不得超過七天。

注:不能加入任何保護劑,以防破壞物質在固、液間的分配平衡。

步驟6.1 濾膜準備

用扁咀無齒鑷子夾取微孔濾膜放於事先恆重的稱量瓶里,移入烘箱中於103~105℃烘乾半小時后取出置乾燥器內冷卻至室溫,稱其重量。反覆烘乾、冷卻、稱量,直至兩次稱量的重量差≤0.2mg。將恆重的微孔濾膜正確的放在濾膜過濾器(4.1)的濾膜托盤上,加蓋配套的漏斗,並用夾子固定好。以蒸餾水濕潤濾膜,並不斷吸濾。

6.2 測定

量取充分混合均勻的試樣100mL抽吸過濾。使水分全部通過濾膜。再以每次10mL蒸餾水連續洗滌三次,繼續吸濾以除去痕量水分。停止吸濾后,仔細取出載有懸浮物的濾膜放在原恆重的稱量瓶里,移入烘箱中於103~105℃下烘乾一小時后移入乾燥器中,使冷卻到室溫,稱其重量。反覆烘乾、冷卻、稱量,直至兩次稱量的重量差≤0.4mg為止。

注:濾膜上截留過多的懸浮物可能夾帶過多的水份,除延長乾燥時間外,還可能造成過濾困難,遇此情況,可酌情少取試樣。濾膜上懸浮物過少,則會XX稱量誤差,影響測定精度,必要時,可XX試樣體積。一般以5~100mg懸浮物量做為量取試樣體積的實用範圍。

結果的表示懸浮物含量C(mg/L)按下式計算:

式中:C——水中懸浮物濃度,mg/L;

A——懸浮物+濾膜+稱量瓶重量,g;

B——濾膜+稱量瓶重量,g;

V——試樣體積,mL。

附加說明:

本標準由國家環保局標準處技術提出。

本標準由煙台市環境監測中心站負責起草。

本標準主要起草人李長海、王文法。

本標準委託中國環境監測總站負責解釋。

5英文版1. Applicable scope

It is used to test the SS in Water

It can be used for testing the SS in the surface or underground water, also can be used to test domestic water and industrial waste water.

2 Definition

The suspended substance is the stuff which is left on the filter film after being filtered with the hole diameter of um0.45 and has been dried in 103 to 105℃ condition to standing weight.

3 Reagent

Distilled water or the water with same purity

4 Apparatus

4.1 Normal lab apparatus plus below ones

4.2 Glass type micro film filter

4.3 GN-CA filter film, hole diameter 0.45um, Diameter 60mm.

4.4 Suction bottle, vacuum pump

4.5 Flat type tweezer

5 Sampling and sample storage

5.1 Sampling

The polyethylene bottle or hard glass bottle should be cleaned with detergent and then washed by tap water and distilled water respectively. Before sampling, it should be cleaned with the sample water 3 times. Then representative water sample should be taken at the volume of 500 to 1000ml, cover the cap tightly.

Note: The non-consistent solid material floating or submerged can not be regarded as SS, which should be removed from the water sample.

5.2 Sample storage

The water sample should be analyzed ASAP. If it needs to be stored for some time, it should be stored in the refrigerator at 4 ℃. But the duration can not be longer than 7 days.

Note: It is not allowed to add any protection agent to avoid the damage on the balance of solid and liquid phase.

6. Procedure

6.1 Filtering film preparation

Firstly, take the microporous film and put it on the standing weight bottle. Then it will be dried in the oven for half an hour at the temperature of 103 to 105℃. After that, it will be moved out to cool in the dryer until its temperature drops to room temperature. It should be dried, cooled and weighted repeatedly until the weight difference between two subsequent weighing is less than 0.2mg. Then the microporous film at constant weight should be correctly put on the film support tray and matching hopper should be equipped. Then it should be fastened with clamp. Wet the film with the distilled water and filtration and suction should be continuous.

6.2 Test

It is to suck 100ml of homogeneously mixed sample for filtering to get the water running through the microporous film. Next , wash it 3 times consecutively with 10ml of distilled water each time. Continue suction and filtration until getting the residual water away. After stopping filtering, put the film with SS left on top in the weighing bottle and then put them in the oven with the temperature of 103 to 105℃ for 1 hr. Then take it to the dryer to cool down to room temperature. Following step is to weigh it. The drying, cooling, and weighing should be repeated until the weight difference of two consecutive weightings is less than 0.4mg.

Note: Excessive SS on the top of microporous film may contain surplus moisture, which will increase the difficulty of filtering besides longer drying time. In that case, we can reduce the sampling volume slightly. On another hand, less SS on the film will also raise the weighing error and affect the measurement precision. thus, sampling volume should be increased correspondingly. Normally the sampling is done in the sample ranging from 5 to 100mg of SS.

7 Result calculation:

SS content:

In which, C: SS consistency

g;A—Weight of SS+ film+ weighing bottle

B: Weight of film+ weighing bottle

V: Sample volume

Note:

This standard is provided by National environmental protection bureau.

It is drafted by Yantai Environmental Monitoring Center.

It is mainly drafted by Mr Li Changhai and Wang Wenfa.

China Environmental Monitoring Center is responsible for the explanation for this standard.


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